Written English is full of silent, dead letters: the k of knee, the b of thumb or the h of stomach. When it’s sung, English is haunted by different ghosts – consonants the singer chooses to shape but not to sound. Ghost sounds.
Ghost sounds are a powerful tool to use when you sing in English. And a dangerous trap if you’re learning English songs by ear.
Adele sings a full fright of ghosts into Skyfall. We all know that the word Skyfall ends with an ll but, when Adele sings the word, what sound do you actually hear? An ll, or something slightly different? Is the sound exactly the same every single time she sings the word? Why does she sing the sound as she does?
I can’t always hear the ll sound when Adele sings the word skyfall, but I can always hear its ghost.
What’s a ghost? Ghosts are the whispers and shadows of letters, usually consonants, usually d or t, usually at the end of words. The sounds you can’t quite hear, though you know they’re there. Letters that a native English speaking singer will have in their mind and will shape carefully with their mouth, but will often leave mute or unspoken. Horribly easy for a non-native speaker to miss, especially if you’re learning songs by ear and not checking the lyrics. Be careful. Without its ghosts, any song in English will lose its meaning and lose its resonance. With its ghosts well managed, any song in English gains emotional depth.
Back to Skyfall. True, I know the name of the song is Skyfall, so I’m expecting a double ll at the end of the word. I know that Adele’s singing in English. I know that Skyfor and Skyfaw aren’t English words, even though those sounds are all I can actually hear. But there’s more to it than that. I can sense the ghost of the ll. I can hear that Adele has put her mouth in the right position to pronounce the ll at the end. The shape of her mouth affects the ‘shape’ of the breath that escapes her mouth and that affects the sound she makes. It’s subtle but crucial.
When Adele sings the word Skyfall, she’s ghosting the end. The whole word is in her mind, and that’s important. She doesn’t pronounce the ll loudly, but she positions her tongue quietly and neatly behind her top front teeth, ready to begin the next word of the song. She completes the word by making the shape of the ll.
Try it for yourself: say the word Skyfall, pronouncing the ll. Where is your tongue at the end of the word ? Behind your top front teeth? Now say it again and notice the shape that your lips make at the end of the word. Relaxed and partially closed? Perfect.
Now say Skyfor or Skyfaw. Where is your tongue at the end of either word? Further back, somewhere behind your bottom front teeth? And your mouth? Open in the pushed out shape of an O, with a forward energy in your breath? Quite a difference. Imagine how the difference in your mouth’s shape would affect the sound of the song. Think how much longer you’d take to get your mouth into position for the next word.
If you’re a native speaker, you ghost or pronounce consonants all the time, without thinking, when you’re speaking or singing. Awareness gives you control when you sing. Another tool for your toolbox.
Choosing to ghost or ‘un-ghost’ consonants is powerful. You can decide when to draw your audience’s attention to a sound, a thought or an emotion, just by pronouncing a consonant clearly or muting it. Think of yourself as a burlesque dancer manipulating a large feather fan. Yes, really. Hiding and revealing keeps your audience’s attention.
Here are some examples of clever consonant wrangling: with tt, with b, with d, again with d, with t. The best, most powerful songs are full of similar ‘now you hear it, now you don’t‘ magic.
The more you listen, the more you’ll hear shades of consonant, like shades of colour, in songs. It’s interesting to consider the effect they have on you, as a listener.
When you sing, think about the sound picture you want to paint and the emotional impression you want to leave in your audience’s mind. The ghosts of English are your ally.
By the way – why do you think Adele ghosts the final ll of Skyfall? The only time you need to pronounce the ll clearly is when the next word begins with a vowel. The ll acts as a barrier between the two vowel sounds. Every other time, you have a choice.
I’d guess that one reason for singing the word Skyfall differently is so that the audience isn’t thinking a Chicken Little – style sky fall – two words, but two ordinary words. Skyfall is one word and it has a special, specific meaning for Mr Bond.
Adele shows that it’s special by singing skyfall with slightly unusual pronunciation. She holds both the idea of the sky falling and of Skyfall, Bond’s ancestral home, in the way she sings the word.
Try singing the word Skyfall right to the end – you close off the vowel by pronouncing the ll strongly, don’t you? The ll is always a barrier. Sing the word Skyfall right to the end each time and you reduce the powerful, soaring expanse of the word Skyfall. Adele makes a very wise singing decision: to ghost the ll when she can, to open the door of the cage and set the vowel free to soar.
If English isn’t your first language: Remember: the ghost of a sound isn’t the same as the complete absence of a sound. Don’t make the mistake of only singing what you think you hear in the original version of a song. Always, always check the lyrics.
If you sing skyfaw instead of Skyfall, my instead of mind, or reach ow instead of reach out, or be goo instead of be good, it won’t sound right.
The ghosts are there to help you. Once you’ve found them.
© Sing Better English, 2014
25 thoughts on “Skyfall, Adele and the Ghosts of English Song”
Thank you, I will look out for the ghosts!
Hi Francesco. Thanks for your feedback. Let us know if there’s a particular song that you’re working on and we’ll try to help with it.
Reading you and listening to her going up and up at the same time… A real treat!
LikeLiked by 1 person
She came in for some rather mean criticism at the time of Skyfall because that ‘skyfaw’ sound was considered ‘common’. People, mainly British people, said that she should be ashamed of not pronouncing the word ‘properly’, with the double l firmly in place. Some asked why the recording studio let her ‘get away with it’.
Not fair really, when pronouncing the final ll would have taken away from the feel of the song.
Did you get the Advanced Ghost Question?
I’m ashamed to say that I didn’t, Elaine. I’d like to say it’s because the video at the Oscars is not longer available on that link, but I’m sure I couldn’t get it anyway 😦
I’ll tell you something, though. This entry made me understand why there are some sounds I couldn’t feel in some songs. It’s not that they aren’t there… I just didn’t pay attention to the ghosts.
Take care bella.
LikeLiked by 1 person
Oops, yes, I see the video link’s gone. Oh well. It’s interesting about the ‘d’ of ‘end’ – you would have heard it in the Oscar version. Pronouncing it gives more of an ‘end’ to the word itself, whereas when Adele ghosts the ‘d’ it leaves the impression of the word in the listener’s mind, without overstating it. In a Bond film it’s all forward movement and action, isn’t it? So the hint of the ‘end’ is there, but the song can’t come crashing into a complete wall of an ‘end’ in the very first line. Not for the soundtrack anyway. In the wikipedia entry about the song, they said they were looking for a mood of death and rebirth. Oh, I do love words!
See if this oscar link works: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7C-4vCFyWg
LikeLiked by 1 person
Interesting posts. I guess I need to pay attention to my music 🙂 Thank you. Take care. Salil
Wow, so many points resonanted with me:
– Hiding and revealing keeps your audience’s attention.
– I can’t always hear the ll sound, but I can always hear its ghost.
– Weilding the attention of the audience like a burlesque lady with a large feather fan
– The ghosts are there to help you. Once you’ve found them.
I’m a native English speaker, as you already know, but the extra things I’m learning about the language through you are so enjoyable! And the way your write, I must admit, is also quite captivating!
ps) I didn’t get the advanced ghost question either…. I think perhaps your mind is just a bit further than mine 🙂 Distractions used to be my excuse, but now I can only just thank the higher-ups for their patience in teaching !!
I do think the ‘hide and reveal’ of song is powerful. I can’t imagine that anyone plans to do it – you’d need a background in magic, linguistics and neuroscience to make that choice consciously – I’d guess that a performer, by chance, or because of their own emotional investment in the song, emphasises a sound to make a point. As we all do in arguments or in love. Then, that sounds good to them, or they feel the reaction of their audience, and decide to keep using the same sound.
Looking at it from the outside always feels a bit like those English literature lessons at school where we had to unpick poetry to figure out how the poet created effects with language. It always felt to me as if we were using a sledgehammer to crack open the poems. And that, if we’d tried to put them back together, they would have been cracked and broken.
With the blog, my intention is for singers to recognise the power of words and the power of moderating words. For non-native speakers, unless they’ve ‘lived’ in English – got cross in English, loved in English etc – the language stays in a strangely fossilised state. They only have one version of any word – the version that their English teacher marked as ‘correct.’ They often don’t know that the language bends and stretches in song.
I was going to say as well – poor Adele got a lot of criticism from people who thought she was singing ‘Skyfaw’ because she couldn’t be bothered to moderate her Croydon accent. There was a whole Twitter hashtag skyfaw thing going on.
LikeLiked by 1 person